Zend Stratigility

PSR-7 middleware foundation for building and dispatching middleware pipelines.

This package relies on zendframework/zend-diactoros, which is Zend’s implementation of PSR-7 interfaces. Using Stratigility, we can build applications out of middleware.


As mentioned in the Understanding Middleware article, Zend Stratigility is an application used to handle middleware.

Below is an example of piping middlewares to different routes.

Note: Multiple middleware can be piped to routes.

Initializing Application (Stratigility\MiddlewarePipe)

//declare the fully qualified class names that we use at the beginning of the file
//we'll add more as we progress
use Zend\Stratigility\MiddlewarePipe;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response\SapiEmitter;

//change the current directory to the parent of /public

//we load the file by using its relative path(to the current dir we have set above)
require 'vendor/autoload.php';

// generate the request and response
$request = ServerRequestFactory::fromGlobals($_SERVER, $_GET, $_POST, $_COOKIE, $_FILES);
$response = new Response();

// initializing Zend\Stratigility\MidlewarePipe application
$application = new MiddlewarePipe();

Piping middleware to routes

Piping to route “/” (also applies to all routes)

    function(ServerRequestInterface $request, ResponseInterface $response, callable $next = null)
        //check the uri path to see if we requested the home page or not
        if(! in_array($request->getUri()->getPath(), ['', '/'])) {
            //if path not empty, we have nothing to do here, call next middleware to display the requested page
            return $next($request, $response);

        //display the html home page, we use the zend-diactoros HtmlResponse
        //HtmlResponse accepts the html string as parameter. It sets code 200 by default and add the Content-Type header text/html
        return new HtmlResponse("<h1>Home page</h1>");

Routes to route “/about”

    function(ServerRequestInterface $request, ResponseInterface $response, callable $next = null) {
        //directly return a response
        return new HtmlResponse("<h1>About Us</h1>");

Running the application

//run the application with the initial request/response object created earlier
$response = $application($request, $response);

Emitting the response

//we need to send the response to the browser, we use diactoros emitter class that do the conversion for us
$emitter = new SapiEmitter();


Zend Stratigility is easy to work with but there are some constraints:

  • routing is static (routes like user/id/20) cannot be automatically parsed
  • there is no template engine
  • there is no container for dependencies, they must be created manually

The solution for these limitations is using Zend Expressive.

Sources: zend-diactoros zend-stratigility

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